THE ADVOCATE 191
VOL. 78 PART 2 MARCH 2020
The International Congress attracted delegates appointed by 16 countries.
Several weeks were consumed in diplomatic wrangling of the kind
that we still experience today, but, surprisingly, Moynier and Dunant’s draft
was finally approved with few modifications. It was a model of brevity, ten
articles in just over 500 words:
Article 1. Ambulances and military hospitals shall be recognized as neutral,
and as such, protected and respected by the belligerents as long as
they accommodate wounded and sick.
Neutrality shall end if the said ambulances or hospitals should be held
by a military force.
Article 2. Hospital and ambulance personnel, including the quarter-
master’s staff, the medical, administrative and transport services, and the
chaplains, shall have the benefit of the same neutrality when on duty,
and while there remain any wounded to be brought in or assisted.
Article 3. The persons designated in the preceding Article may, even
after enemy occupation, continue to discharge their functions in the hospital
or ambulance with which they serve, or may withdraw to rejoin the
units to which they belong.
When in these circumstances they cease from their functions, such
persons shall be delivered to the enemy outposts by the occupying forces.
Article 4. The material of military hospitals being subject to the laws of
war, the persons attached to such hospitals may take with them, on withdrawing,
only the articles which are their own personal property.
Ambulances, on the contrary, under similar circumstances, shall retain
Article 5. Inhabitants of the country who bring help to the wounded shall
be respected and shall remain free. Generals of the belligerent Powers
shall make it their duty to notify the inhabitants of the appeal made to
their humanity, and of the neutrality which humane conduct will confer.
The presence of any wounded combatant receiving shelter and care in
a house shall ensure its protection. An inhabitant who has given shelter
to the wounded shall be exempted from billeting and from a portion of
such war contributions as may be levied.
Article 6. Wounded or sick combatants, to whatever nation they may
belong, shall be collected and cared for.
Commanders-in-Chief may hand over immediately to the enemy outposts
enemy combatants wounded during an engagement, when circumstances
allow and subject to the agreement of both parties.
Those who, after their recovery, are recognized as being unfit for further
service, shall be repatriated.
The others may likewise be sent back, on condition that they shall not
again, for the duration of hostilities, take up arms.
Evacuation parties, and the personnel conducting them, shall be considered
as being absolutely neutral.
Article 7. A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for hospitals,
ambulances and evacuation parties. It should in all circumstances be
accompanied by the national flag.