138 THE ADVOCATE
VOL. 77 PART 1 JANUARY 2019
1. These include, in the legal field, LEGOL, TAXMAN,
SARA, JUDITH, and ABF (see notes 16, 17, 18, 11
and 12 respectively), and in the medical field, DENDRAL
and MYCIN (see note 8).
2. DENDRAL and MYCIN, see note 8.
3. The ABF program has been tested in a student legal
clinic law program; see James A Sprowl, “Computerizing
Client Services in the Law School Teaching
Clinic: An Experiment in Law Office Automation”,
(1981) American Bar Foundation Research Journal
#3, 699–731; a program called the “Document
Modeler” is currently on the market, see Canadian
Lawyer, October 1985, Volume 19, Issue 7, 24–25.
4. Bryan Niblett, “Introduction”, Computer Science and
Law, (1980), edited by Bryan Niblett, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 13.
5. Ibid, 7.
6. Constantino Ciampi, “Artificial Intelligence and
Legal Information Systems”, in Artificial Intelligence
and Legal Information Systems, edited by Constantino
Ciampi, (1982), North Holland Publishing Company,
7. Ibid, 55.
8. See BG Buchanen, GL Sutherland, and EA Fergenbaum,
“Heuristic DENDRAL: A Program for Generating
Explanatory Hypotheses in Organic
Chemistry”, (1969) Machine Intelligence 4 Edinburgh,
as quoted in Niblett, op cit, 19.
9. Bruce G Buchanan and Thomas E Hendrick, ”Some
Speculations About Artificial Intelligence and Legal
Reasoning”, (1970), 23 Stanford Law Review 40–62
at note 10.
10. Ciampi, op cit, 57.
11. Walter G Popp and Bernard Schlink, “JUDITH: A
Computer Program to Advise Lawyers in Reasoning
a Case”, 15 Jurimetrics Journal 303.
12. James A Sprowl, “Automating the Legal Reasoning
Process: A Computer that Uses Regulations and
Statutes to Draft Legal Documents”, (1979), American
Bar Foundation Research Journal #1, 1–82; see
also article by Sprowl cited in note 3, above, and, by
the same author, “The Automated Assembly of Legal
Documents”, in Niblett, op cit, 195–205.
13. Sprowl, “Automating the Legal Reasoning Process: A
Computer that Uses Regulations and Statutes to Draft
Legal Documents”, op cit, 5.
14. Sprowl, “The Automated Assembly of Legal Documents”,
op cit, 197.
15. Canadian Lawyer, October 1985, Volume 9, Issue 7,
16. S Jones, P Mason, and K Stamper, “Developing the
Legal Semantic Grammar”, in Ciampi, op cit,
17. Thorne L McCarty, “Reflections on Taxman: An
Experiment in Artificial Intelligence and Legal Reasoning”,
(1970), 90 Harvard Law Review 837–893.
18. Jon Bing, “Legal Norms, Discretionary Rules, and
Computer Programs”, in Niblett, op cit, 119–136.
19. Geoffry C Hazard and Deborah L Rhode, The Legal
Profession: Responsibility and Regulation, (1985),
The Foundation Press, Inc., New York, 2.
20. Vern Countryman, Ted Finman, and Theodore J
Schneyer, The Lawyer in Modern Society, (1976), Little
Brown & Company, Boston and Toronto, 239.
21. See, for example: Mark K Schonfield and Barbara
Pearlman, Interviewing and Counselling, (1981),
American Law Institute, American Bar Association,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Andrew Watson, The
Lawyer in the Interviewing and Counselling Process,
(1976), Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc., New York; and
the Professional Legal Training Course materials,
(1985), Continuing Legal Education Society of British
22. Watson, op cit, 5.
23. Ibid, 6–9.
24. Ibid, 55; Professional Legal Training Course, op cit,
25. Walter T Fisher, What Every Lawyer Knows, (1974),
Harvard Co-operative Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
26. Quinton Johnstone and Dan Hopson, Lawyers and
Their Work, (1967), Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc,
New York, 183.
27. John S Bradway, How to Practice Law Effectively,
(1958), Oceana Publications, New York, 39.
28. Harrop A Freeman and Henry Weihofen, Clinical
Law Training, (1972), West Publishing Company, St
Paul Minnesota, 120.
Bing, Jon, and Harvold, Trygve, Legal Decisions and
Information Systems, (1977), Universitetsforlaget,
Clarence Morris, How Lawyers Think, (1937), Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Zemens, FH, Lawyering Process, (1972), Osgoode Hall
Law School, Toronto