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834 THE ADVOCATE VOL. 75 PART 6 NOVEMBER 2017 Point in 1846, had proved to be a good soldier. He was initially given the rank of major in the Confederate Army but rapidly advanced to that of general. In early July 1863 he found himself in command of a division on the right flank of General Lee’s army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lee formed the view that the Union lines he faced were weak in the centre and ordered an all-out frontal assault. However, it was repulsed with huge casualties. This disastrous enterprise later became known as “Pickett’s Charge”. Reportedly, when Pickett returned to headquarters after the battle, Lee told him to rally his division to defend against the anticipated counter-attack. “General Lee, I have no division,” he said. The Battle of Gettysburg marked the commencement of the south’s military decline. In this period other events of (more regional) moment were also taking place. In 1866 the merged Colony of British Columbia was created, in 1867 the Dominion of Canada was created and in July 1871 British Columbia joined it. Meanwhile on San Juan Island life carried on—the British at one end, the Americans at the other. In 1871, by the Treaty of Washington, Britain and the United States settled a number of outstanding issues and agreed to submit the San Juan dispute to arbitration. Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia was chosen to act as arbitrator. (The British must have considered this to be a safe bet, since the kaiser was the father-in-law of Queen Victoria’s eldest daughter—also Victoria—who was married to the kaiser’s son and heir to the throne, Frederick.) Kaiser Wilhelm appointed a three-man commission to look into the matter. It met in Geneva for nearly a year. A huge volume of maps and memoranda was submitted by the parties—an example of documents-only arbitration. No doubt Bismarck was also consulted. On October 21, 1872 Kaiser Wilhelm ruled in favour of the U.S. position. He concluded that the “channel” referred to in the Oregon Treaty was Haro Strait, being the widest channel. A month later all the Royal Marines had been withdrawn from San Juan Island. The Americans had followed suit by July 1874. Thus did the San Juan Islands become part of Washington state and not British Columbia. However, today the remnants of the English and American camps are preserved as exhibits in the San Juan Island National Historic Park. The Union Jack is raised and lowered daily over the English camp—one of the few non-diplomatic places where U.S. officials raise a foreign flag over U.S. territory. ENDNOTE 1. See Derek Hayes, British Columbia: A New Historical Atlas (Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 2012); “Pig War (1859)”, Wikipedia, online: <en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig_War_(1859)>. t t t t t


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