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828 V O L . 7 5 P A R T 6 N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 7 THE ADVOCATE Recent reforms to the rules of court, guidelines for counsel on best practices for communications with experts and novel procedures such as “hottubbing” experts may help promote objectivity and bolster the usefulness of such evidence for adjudication. Some argue that more radical reforms are required for historical evidence, such as resorting to court-appointed experts or special masters to make rulings on complicated issues of historical fact.60 In considering such ideas, or others such as recourse to an impartial body for mapping Aboriginal title,61 it is worthwhile to keep in mind the existing evidentiary rules available to the judicial process to “do the best it can” in making findings of historical fact. ENDNOTES 1. Delgamuukw v British Columbia, 1997 3 SCR 1010 at para 86. 2. R v Van der Peet, 1996 2 SCR 507 at para 68. 3. R v Marshall, 1999 3 SCR 456 at para 36 Marshall . See also Osoyoos Indian Band v Oliver (Town), 2001 3 SCR 746 at para 40. 4. Mitchell v MNR, 2001 1 SCR 911 at paras 36, 39. 5. R v DD, 2000 SCC 43 at para 57, citing David Paciocco, then a law professor at the University of Ottawa. 6. David Rosenberg, QC, and Tim Dickson, “Mapping Aboriginal Title in British Columbia” (2016) 74 Advocate 505. 7. R v Bingley, 2017 SCC 12 at para 14. See also R v Mohan, 1994 2 SCR 9 at 20 Mohan; White Burgess Langille Inman v Abbott and Haliburton Co, 2015 SCC 23 at para 24 WBLI. 8. Director of Public Prosecutions v Jordan, 1977 AC 699 at 718, cited in Mohan, supra note 7 at 24. 9. Mohan, supra note 7 at 24. 10. Fairford First Nation v Canada (Attorney General), 1998 FCJ No 47 at para 1 (FC) Fairford. 11. Ibid at para 9. 12. See also Blackwater v Plint (1998), BCLR (3d) 214 at para 17 (SC) Plint, excluding a report prepared by Dr. Milloy on the residential school system which had originally been prepared for the Royal Commission. 13. Lac La Ronge Indian Band v Canada, 1999 SKQB 218 at para 65, rev’d on other grounds 2001 SKCA 109. The Court of Appeal, however, conducted a detailed review of the factual evidence tendered, making little reference to expert evidence, and reached certain conclusions that differed from those of the trial judge. 14. William v British Columbia, 2004 BCSC 1237 at para 12 William. See also Anderson v Canada (Attorney General), 2015 NLTD(G) 138 at paras 8–11. 15. Ross River Dena Council v The Attorney General of Canada, 2011 YKSC 87 at para 44 Ross River. See also Anderson v Canada, 2015 NLTD(G) 174 at paras 7–9. 16. Mohan, supra note 7 at 20. 17. See ibid. 18. Sawridge Band v Canada, 2005 FC 1501 at para 88, aff’d 2006 FCA 228 at para 49 Sawridge FCA. 19. Ibid at para 8. 20. Ibid at para 58. 21. Ibid at para 70. 22. Squamish Indian Band v Canada, 1998 FCJ No 330 (TD) Squamish Indian Band. 23. Ibid at para 13. 24. Ibid at para 23. 25. Mohan, supra note 7 at para 21. The Supreme Court of Canada saw this as a general factor in WBLI, supra note 7 at paras 19–20, 24. 26. Squamish Indian Band, supra note 22 at para 24. 27. Sawridge FCA, supra note 18 at para 49. 28. Anderson v Canada (Attorney General), 2015 NLTD(G) 186 at para 19. 29. Ibid at para 25. 30. Mohan, supra note 7 at 25. 31. Glenn R Anderson, Expert Evidence, 3rd ed (Markham: LexisNexis Canada, 2014) at 67. 32. Squamish Indian Band, supra note 22. 33. Ibid at para 2. 34. Ross River, supra note 15 at para 61. 35. Mohan, supra note 7 at 25. 36. Fairford, supra note 10 at para 1. 37. Ibid at para 6. 38. Ibid at para 5. 39. Southwind v Canada, 2016 FC 1132 at paras 18–24 Southwind. 40. Ibid at para 28. 41. John A Olah, The Art and Science of Advocacy (Toronto: Thomson Reuters, 1999) (loose-leaf) at 16-8. 42. Canada (Attorney General) v Anishnabe of Wauzhushk Onigum Band, 2003 1 CNLR 6 (ONSC). 43. Olah, supra note 41 at 16-9. 44. R v Côté, 1996 3 SCR 139 at para 66. 45. Hamlet of Baker Lake v Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development) (1979), 1980 1 FCR 518 at 518–521 (TD) Baker Lake. 46. Ontario (Attorney General) v Bear Island Foundation (1984), 49 OR (2d) 353 at 371 (HCJ) Bear Island.


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